Multiple Baseline Design Using Aba Therapy
Multiple Baseline Design is study experiments that allow researchers to analyze dependent variables to find a functional relationship simultaneously. Importantly, this is designed to help stop or reinforce certain behaviors depending on their outcomes. For instance, desired behaviors are positively reinforced among individuals to exhibit the same actions repeatedly. Notably, these experiments can be performed across behavior, where dependent variables are studied individually. Also, this study can be carried on two or more individuals. Lastly, such experiments can be conducted across different settings to determine how changes in the environment change the dependent variables (Wolfe, Dickenson, Miller & McGrath, 2019). These experiments begin with identification variables, which are behaviors that need to be fostered or stopped. For instance, my Multiple Baseline design is focused on discouraging the behavior of coming late to work among employees by providing incentives to employees and feedback when the study’s population came met the set expectation of the study.
The Multiple Baseline design experiment will focus on a set of employees who have a high tendency to go to work late. Notably, these investigations will be meant to stop the negative behavior of lateness in the work environment by fostering desired traits as per applied behavior analysis therapy (Rodgers, 2020). Importantly, the study population will be promised to receive additional monetary compensation on top of their salaries if they came to work on time. However, if they fail to go to work on time, their compensation will be withdrawn. The study team will set out other measures to reinforce the behavior by sending congratulatory behavior when the respondents met the objectives. However, if they fail to come on to work time, they were reminded that their performance was below satisfactory, and they should fix their schedules to ensure they report on time on their work.
Importantly, this particular multiple baseline design will use the Applied Behaviour Analysis. Notably, these criteria apply psychological concepts of learning systematically to alter behavior in the desired manner (Hidayatullah, Agustiani & Setiawan, 2018). For instance, a behavior can be positively reinforced when the desired behavior is exhibited by an individual or set of persons; they are given a prize to remind them that the action is highly desired. Additionally, these criteria can be used in the form of punishment, where when an individual portrays undesired behavior, this particular person receives corporal punishment. For instance, when a kid misbehaves, he is caned or given a time out to temporarily separate from an enriched and enjoyable environment to eliminate offending behavior. In these multiple designs, we will offer incentives to employees who have a previous history of coming to work with some money when they come on time. Additionally, when they are late, as they are used to remind them, it is always prudent to go to work at a good time.
The design is based on the provision of additional incentives to the employees’ salary package. This will be done by giving employees more money. As a result, there is a possibility of employees studying observing time to receive the prize set out. This is because people are looking for means to increase their revenue streams and total income. Thus there is a possibility the rate of employees will drastically decline as they will strive to claim the prize. Also, congratulatory messages will be one way of fostering positive communication. Notably, positive feedback will motivate them that their efforts are being appreciated; thus, there is a high likelihood of working repetitively. Also, positive communication will trigger positive emotions that will make them happy, thus likely to do anything within their reach to arrive at work on time afterward. Therefore, providing additional monetary or non-monetary and providing positive communication through sharing a congratulatory message will motivate employees to keep time
This design will be expensive to maintain, especially if the study period is long and monetary incentives are not attractive to all employees. Firstly, the financial expenses will result in an additional cost to the organization involved. For instance, if the experiment is likely to take six months or more and the population undergoing the experimentation is large, that will be a significant expense to the organization. Such costs can have a considerable impact on the revenue and economic profits of the organization. For this reason, the additional monetary and non-monetary meant to foster or stop desired, or undesired behavior should be appropriately regulated to avoid spending too much on an uncertain experiment that we are not sure will bear fruits. On the other hand, the monetary incentive may not be attractive to others for various reasons. For instance, compensation can behave meaningless to impacts others because they have too much money. Additionally, other factors may render monetary compensation ineffective. For example, a person caring for sick or older adults might not be swayed by money because they must complete essential service and care for their loved ones before they proceed to work.
Importantly, in compliance with the A-B-A-B design, this particular design will remove the treatment or the intervention to measure whether the desired behavior will persist (Fabiano, Pyle, Kelty & Parham, 2017). In other words, after a given set of times, the monetary compensation will be withdrawn. This is made to study whether ABA therapy has worked or not. If the desired behavior is achieved, the study will experiment conclusively with a functional relationship between the monetary compensation and latecomers in workplaces. For this reason, this intervention will be applied to other groups who have the problem of coming late to work.
The first multiple designs will involve studying a single behavior on a single individual; then, later, we moved the study of single behavior on various participants. Thirdly, we will vary the various baselines across settings in an experiment that will belong to the category of multiple Baselines across settings (Levin, Ferron & Gafurov, 2018). This variation will involve measuring lateness behavior among employees across multiple locations or situations. Importantly, we will measure the rate of lateness in employees in three different settings. First, we will test lateness into organization parties, where food and other refreshments will be provided for free without any contributions from employees. Secondly, lateness to the co-curricular activities will be measured, where will seek to determine This variation is to determine whether the involved parties exhibit lateness across all settings. This variation in settings will modify our initial research question from monetary compensation on lateness to how employees’ lateness varies from one setting to another.
This research participant will remain the same, and they will belong to the group of employees with a lateness tendency. The experiment aims to use the same participant to determine the lateness behavior across the multiple settings to see whether these tendency changes depending on setting or constant. Therefore, the participant will remain the same. However, the settings will vary. Additionally, monetary compensation will be kept constant in workshops and pieces of training. But not employees will be legible for monetary compensation in parties and other fun events of the organizations.
The setting changes will be critical because they will reveal how lateness behavior varies or is consistent across different situations. Thus helping employers know areas that need deliberate efforts to ensure that lateness tendency is brought into total control. Additionally, the different multiple baseline research will help determine whether the monetary incentives impact curbing lateness. Using the same group of individuals who have lateness tendency enables to evaluate a behavior consistently, thus resulting in reliable findings.
The single-subject design has helped kids with cognitive disabilities attain abilities that enable them to live comfortably in society (Rodgers, 2020). For instance, kids with autism, a disorder which is characterized by challenges in social skills, speech, and repetitive behaviors, among others, are treated with single-subject design such as the Applied Behaviour Analysis where negative traits are stopped and positive ones reinforced with the hope they will continue occurring in the future. For example, when kids have a cognitive disability where they wrongly and repetitively pick a red color, they are instructed to choose blue. They can be treated by showing them the right color, and when they independently chose the right one, they are awarded or given gifts to emphasize that when a wrong. Therefore single baseline design has helped kids improve on cognitive abilities.
Additionally, the single-subject Baseline has enabled the grouping of designs that make it cost-effective, thus saving resources (Fahmie, Iwata & Mead, 2016). This is because treatment is given to the dependent variable, and if it proves successive, other variables are subjected to the same interventions. If it works in both cases, then their conclusion is made that their causal and functional relationship. Such findings enable professionals responsible for special kids who have challenges to tailor their challenges to meet their objectives. Importantly, this combination of designs enables examining various behaviors, thus leading to resources spent in researching.
To sum up, Applied Behaviour analysis based on various types of multiple baseline designs can lead to establishment of causal and functional relationships. Importantly, Applied Baseline theory reveals that behavior can be altered. For this reason, the desired characteristic can be positively reinforced in people because individuals learn through experience or consequences that emerge from the occurrence of a certain event. This particular design was meant to elicit good behavior by attaching monetary compensation to employees with a lateness tendency. Notably, the research tends to vary the multiple bases to study lateness behavior in diverse settings such as training and works and parties and core curricular activities to determine whether the problem will persist. The design keeps the participants the same throughout all study settings, and monetary compensation is active in normal workplace and workshop training. However, it is repealed in parties because the organizer fully means the cost.
Fabiano, G. A., Pyle, K., Kelty, M. B., & Parham, B. R. (2017). Progress monitoring using direct behavior rating single item scales in a multiple-baseline design study of the daily report card intervention. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 43(1), 21-33.
Wolfe, K., Dickenson, T. S., Miller, B., & McGrath, K. V. (2019). Comparing visual and statistical analysis of multiple baseline design graphs. Behavior modification, 43(3), 361-388.
Rodgers, M., Marshall, D., Simmonds, M., Le Couteur, A., Biswas, M., Wright, K., … & Hodgson, R. (2020). Interventions based on early intensive applied behavior analysis for autistic children: a systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis. Health technology assessment (Winchester, England), 1-306.
Fahmie, T. A., Iwata, B. A., & Mead, S. C. (2016). Within‐subject analysis of a prevention strategy for problem behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 49(4), 915-926.
Hidayatullah, T., Agustiani, H., & Setiawan, A. S. (2018). Behavior management-based applied behavior analysis within a dental examination of children with an autism spectrum disorder. Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), 51(2), 71-75.
Levin, J. R., Ferron, J. M., & Gafurov, B. S. (2018). Comparison of randomization-test procedures for single-case multiple-baseline designs. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 21(5), 290-311.
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