Hi, need to submit a 750 words paper on the topic Introduce a health issue and ways in which it can be prevented. HIV a health issue affecting Black African men of ages between 30 to 34 in the UK HIV as A Health Issue Affecting Black African Men of Ages Between 30 to 34 in the UK Background And Prevalence Of The Issue. HIV/AIDS is referred to as the human immunodeficiency virus or the acquired immunodeficiency virus (Corcoran, 2007). This is an illness of the immune system that is brought about by the HIV virus. In the early stages of infection, an individual may have small durations of influenza illnesses (Corcoran, 2007). After this, a prolonged period of having no feelings would be experienced. As the disease progresses, it continues to affect the immune system hence an individual becomes prone to opportunistic diseases. This disease is primarily transmitted through unprotected intercourse, hypodermic needles, transfusion of contaminated blood, and through delivery, breastfeeding or from a mother to an infant during pregnancy. A study conducted in the UK on the causes of death among Black African men between 30 to 34 years reported that the prime cause of death was HIV/AID (Seale, 2002). This implies that this category of persons .are .vulnerable to HIV/AID due to their active nature. There are different types of models and theories, which apply in the HIV/AIDS prevention. These models and theories are derived from communication family, social psychology, population, and planning. They include the health belief model (HBM), the social learning, reasoned action, hierarchy of effects, and cognitive theory respectively. The health belief model (HBM) is a model established in the 1950s in order to predict the response of individuals to personality health and screening services (Corcoran, 2007). It explains the individuals reluctance in participation, in the reduction program of a disease. HBM relies on the value of the theory of expectancy, which overlooks the fact that individuals will take the actions of prevention whenever they are at a risk of a disease. People need to identify the effects as severe thus taking actions of prevention will benefit them in lowering the disease contraction threat (Corcoran, 2007). The four constructs of this model include perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived barriers, perceived benefits, perceived efficacy, and cues to action (Corcoran, 2007). Theory of reasoned action, on the other hand, .is the extension of the HBM. The theory explains the behavior of individuals through the examination of attitudes, behavioral intention, expressed acts, observed acts, and beliefs. The theory relies on the fact that a persons determinant of behavior determines his intention of behavior. This theory identifies the intention through a focus on attitudes towards the reduction of risk, social norm response, and intentions of behavior. The diffusion innovation theory was proposed in 1943 by Gross and Ryan. The theory identifies the method in which an idea that is new is communicated by use of different channels for a period of time among different members of the social system. It describes the factors which influence individual actions, thoughts, and process of having a new technology adopted. In 1962, a detailed diffusion innovation model is proposed. It suggests four stages including diffusion, invention, consequences, and time. This information goes through the network. The networking nature and opinions role predict the likelihood of adopting an innovation (Corcoran, 2007). Hierarchy of Effects is a model that focus on the behaviour of individuals in a fashion that is linear, beginning by being exposed to information, and assuming that attitude, knowledge, desired behaviour adoption, and trial will follow automatically (Corcoran, 2007). This model gives out a vital framework for health campaigns through focusing on the persuasion strategies that are step by step in creating awareness for the change in behaviour. Social marketing was proposed in 1971. It is the implementation, design, control programs that are calculated in influencing the social ideas acceptability and product consideration, pricing, planning, distribution, marketing research, and communication involvement (Corcoran, 2007). The theory of social marketing has features like inclusive awareness of audience of campaign topics, specific audience targeting, message reinforcement, image cultivation, interest stimulation, inducing positioning, and audience segment activation. Social cognitive theory is a theory that relies on the assumption that the behavior of individuals is due to the interaction between behavior, cognition, psychology, and environment (Corcoran, 2007). It relies on self-efficacy and social modelling. Social, modelling, rely on the issue that individuals learn when their observation of other individual actions. Individuals are judged in their own capabilities through comparing themselves to those in similar positions. Theories of Emotional Response argue that the response of emotions comes before the cognitive conditions and the effects of the attitude. In this case, messages that are highly emotional in entertainment would affect the behavior compared to those messages that have a low content of emotions (Corcoran, 2007). Cultivation theory of mass media was advanced in 1973. It explained the idea that intense repeated exposure and definitions that are deviant of reality in the mass media may result to a reality perception. In this case, the result is a reality social legitimization displayed in the mass media that can be influenced by the behaviour (Corcoran, 2007). Behavior that contribute to the problem. There are different types of behaviors that may contribute to HIV/AIDS. These include Immorality and prostitution. In this regard, it is advised that the potentially active persons should always be aware of the use of condom. This would make the target group to assume surety of their protection from contracting HIV/AIDs. The main effect is that these individuals would increase their sexual activities with multiple partners thus prostitution (Seale, 2002). On the other hand, fear, may result into HIV/AIDS. The campaign could evoke fear among the target group. Associating the hospital with a HIV test makes the target group to fear hospital as anyone visiting the hospital would be linked to having HIV/AIDS. Prevention of the health issue The use of condom among men between 30 and 34 years would reduce their risk of being infected by HIV to about 20% for a long period of time (Ewles & Simnet, 2003). Whenever one infected partner continuously used condom, the HIV infection rate fort the person that is uninfected is below one percent per year (Tones & Green, 2010). The models used in the campaign would help to improve the personality health and screening services of HIV/AIDS. They explain the individuals reluctance in participation, in the reduction program of a disease. Some models rely on the value of the theory of expectancy, which overlooks the fact that individuals will take the actions of prevention whenever they are at a risk of a disease. People need to identify the effects as severe thus taking actions of prevention will benefit them in lowering the disease contraction threat (Seale, 2002). Communicating the health issue In a case where immunology, pharmacology, and medical intervention are missing, the behavior change and publics attitude may be a way possible in preventing and curing HIV/AIDS. Even though, the HIV virus is identified as the etiological agent leading to Aids, the virus transmission relies on the behavior of humans which is related to the drug use and sexuality. In this respect, communication has a significant role to play in the process as it disseminates the information, which may spread awareness and hinder the risk behavior thus reducing the social stigma. The information regarding this issue would be communicated through a campaign on the social media including Facebook, and twitter. The different types of models and theories, which apply in the HIV/AIDS awareness, would be involved in the campaign. These models and theories are derived from communication family, social psychology, population, and planning. Different models and theories of the change of behavior like the social learning, reasoned action, hierarchy of effects, and cognitive theory, would be used to communicate the health issue. Target audience A study conducted in the UK on the causes of death among men between 30 to 34 years reported that the prime cause of death was HIV/AID (Seale, 2002). This implies that this category of people is vulnerable to HIV/AID due to their active nature. The campaign will focus on the men of ages between 30 and 34, in order to curb the rampant death rate due to HIV, among this group of persons. This means that the target group for the study would be men of ages between 30 and 34. References. Corcoran, N. (2007). Communicating Health: Implications for health promotion. London: Sage. Davis, M, & Macdowall, W. (2006). Health Promotion Theory. Maidenhead: Open University Press. Ewles. L. & Simnet, I. (2003). Promoting Health: A Practical Guide. Fifth Edition. London: Bailllere Tindall. McDowall, W, Bonnell, C, & Davies, M. (2006). Health Promotion Practice. Maidenhead: University Press. Seale, C. (2002). Media and Health. London: Sage. Tones, K, & Green, J. (2010). Health Promotion: Planning and Strategies. 2nd edition. London: Sage.
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