Any topic (writer’s choice) – College Pal

We only need to finish the following 4 questions: {the first 4 questions from step 2}:
1. What type of information or data do you need to meet the objective (e.g. socio-demographic data, beliefs, opinions, trade statistics, etc.)
2.Proposed method/approach to uncover information to answer question. (e.g. survey, document analysis, etc.)
3. Why is (are) this (these) method(s) appropriate? i.e. Justify their selection based on theory or clear reasoning (Consider your ENBUS 306 textbook or resources from your lit review)
4. Proposed sources of information (e.g. characteristics of respondents or participants if surveys or interviews) OR secondary sources (e.g. reports, articles, websites, etc.)
402B: Research Plan Worksheet
402B: Research Plan Worksheet
We expect detailed descriptions that clearly demonstrate you have thought critically about the steps needed to answer your research question, the data that you will need to answer the research question, and the most appropriate way in which you plan to go about analyzing that data. This cannot be achieved through short answer responses.
Also, remember that while the use of a table may be different from a report-style format we still expect academic standards for your responses. You will need to use references to justify your research plan. We suggest starting with your ENBUS 306 textbook and/or readings. Other references may include the papers you collected for the literature review summary table. Look at how others have collected and analyzed data to answer similar research questions.
Note: As per our course ethics approval through the UW Office of Research Ethics, if you are proposing to do surveys or interviews with individuals:
You (each team member) will need to complete the TCPS2 online tutorial (see Week 2 overview for links) if your research has human participants. See this to determine whether you need to do this
If this applies to your group please discuss it with your advisor as early as possible (i.e. as soon as you decide to do interviews or surveys) as no research activities will be permitted until your team has completed these requirements.
Fallowfield Consulting Research Plan
Reference List
Abdi, H & Williams, L.J. Principal component analysis. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Computational Statistics p. 439-459. Retrieved from
Amoveo Group. (2012). Assessment of Potential Biodiversity Market Partnerships in Ontario. University of Waterloo. Web. Retrieved from

Banerjee, S., Secchi, S., Fergione, J., Polasky, S., and Kraft, S. (July 16, 2013). How to Sell Ecosystem Services: A Guide For Designing New Markets Frontiers in the Ecology and the Environment 11(6): 297?304
Bryman, A., & Bell, E. (2016). Social research methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Business and Biodiversity Offsets Programme (BBOP). (2013). To No Net Loss and Beyond: An Overview of the BBOP. BBOP, Washington, D.C. Web. Retrieved from https://bobbloomfield.files /2014/04/biooffset-bbop.pdf
Campopiano, G., & De Massis, A. (2015). Corporate Social Responsibility Reporting: A Content Analysis in Family and Non-family Firms. Journal of Business Ethics p. 511-534
Carlson, D. et al. (2009). Purchasing carbon offsets: A guide for Canadian consumers, businesses, and organizations. Vancouver, BC: David Suzuki Foundation
Engel, S., Pagiola, S. & Wunder, S. (2008). Designing payments for environmental services in theory and practice: An overview of the issues. Ecological Economics. 65, pg 663-674. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2008.03.011
Graneheim, U.H., Lindgren, B., & Lundman, B. (2017). Methodological challenges in qualitative content analysis: A discussion paper. Nurse Education Today p. 29-34
Jung, S. (2012). Exploratory factor analysis with small sample sizes: A comparison of three approaches. Behavioural Processes p. 90-95
Kate, T, K., Bishop, J., & Bayon, R. (2004). Biodiversity offsets: Views, experience, and the business case. Retrieved from
Kilian, B. et al. (2012). Case study on Dole?s carbon-neutral fruits. Journal of Business Research, 65(12) p. 1800-1810
Koellner, T. et al. (2010). Why and how much are firms willing to invest in ecosystem services from tropical forests? A comparison of international and Costa Rican firms. Ecological Economics, 69(11), p. 2127-2139
Lacy, S., Watson, B.R., Riffe, D., & Lovejoy, J. (2015). Issues and Best Practices in Content Analysis. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly p. 791-811
Lee, T.H. (2017). The status of corporate social responsibility research in public relations: A content analysis of published articles in eleven scholarly journals from 1980 to 2015. Public Relations Review p. 211-218
Muradian, R., et al. (2010). Reconciling Theory and Practice: An Alternative Conceptual Framework for Understanding Payments for Environmental Services. Ecological Economics. 69 (6), 1202?1208
Noga W., Adamowicz, W.L. (2014). A Study of Canadian Conservation Offset Programs: Lessons Learnt from a Review of Programs, Analysis of Stakeholder Perceptions, and Investigation of Transaction Costs. Sustainable Prosperity. University of Ottawa. Web
Swallo, S., Anderson, C. & Uchida, E. (2017). The Bobolink Project: Selling Public Goods From Ecosystem Services Using Provision Point Mechanisms. Ecological Economics, Volume 143, pg. 236-252. 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2017.06.040
Thompson, J. L., Kaiser, A., Sparks, E. L., Shelton, M., Brunden, E., Cherry, J. A., & Cebrian, J. (2016). Ecosystem ? what? Public understanding and trust in conservation science and ecosystem services. Frontiers in Communication
Yang, Y., & Xia, Y. (2014). On the number of factors to retain in exploratory factor analysis for ordered categorical data. Behaviour Research Methods p. 756-772
Zheng, H. et al. (2013). Benefits, costs, and livelihood implications of a regional payment for ecosystem service program. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110 (41): 16681-16686
Zhou, H. et al. (2017). Modifying the Autism Spectrum Rating Scale (6-18 years) to a Chinese Context: An Exploratory Factor Analysis. Neuroscience Bulletin p. 175-182
2023/1/20 14:11Page Template Design and MethodsNow that you have your research question/aim and objectives, you need tothink about how you will collect data to address the objectives and meet yourresearch aim.First, watch this video that explains the difference between Research Designand Methods. (Note: Keep this in mind when you start writing yourmethodology section of the report in Week 3). Also, usually you are requiredto consider a theory or framework to help with research design. This helpsensure that you don’t miss anything in your questionnaires, whether forinterviews or surveys.? For example, if you are interested in understandingconsumer attitudes and behaviours regarding green purchasing, you could usethe Theory of Planned Behaviour to help design your research. Theories andframeworks also help to analyze interviews and documents.? You can speakwith your advisor to see if this would be helpful for your research. There aresome examples provided below on theory and frameworks.Deciding which method to useIn the previous module, we looked at Faiers and Naeme’s (2006) researchquestions and aim. It is obvious from the objectives that the research methodshould be a survey, as they are interested in consumer attitudes. Although it?snot clear from the questions that the researchers asked, this was a study set inthe UK, and they wanted specic marketing information for this demographicgroup. If they wanted more general information, they could do a systematicliterature review or a document analysis to try to meet the objectives.The most common methods for doing research in 402 are surveys, interviews,and using secondary sources (e.g. existing data set such as from StatisticsCanada, systematic review of the literature, or document analysis). You shoulduse what you learned from ENBUS 306 to identify the appropriate method(s)for your research. You can also nd some resources for research methods andanalysis in Content/Assignment Resources/ Research Methods and AnalysisResources and below.
2023/1/20 14:11Page Template of you may only use one method to address your research aim, but manyof you will use two or more methods.Before determining what methods you will use, you should consider what isthe type of information or data that you need to meet the objective (e.g. socio-demographic data, beliefs, opinions, trade statistics, etc.).Write the type of information or data needed for each objective in Section 2 ofthe Research Plan.Knowing the type of information or data you need will help inform you onwhich method to use.Resources for Choosing your MethodsFor this part of the Research Plan assignment, you will have to draw from youlearned in 306 and from your methods text.First, understand the importance of good research design by watching thefollowing video:How to create a research designThen start brainstorming what research tool you will use to address eachobjective. The following resources are useful for both this week’s assignmentand for the Research Protocol in Week 3.Interviews and surveysInterviews and Questionnaires This website explains the pros and cons ofinterviews and surveys, best practices, etc.Research Methods: Questionnaires (6:53) This video discussesconsiderations for designing questionnaires, types of questions, pros and cons,and ethics.Constructing a Questionnaire (15:15) Very good video that explains theprinciples of constructing a questionnaire for surveys.
2023/1/20 14:11Page Template Data Collection (35:09) Good video for qualitative studies (usinginterviews and documents), how to design interview questionnaires, how toconduct interviews, etc.Survey Design: Theoretical Frameworks and Construct Denitions (16:36)Overview of Quantitative Research Methods This is particularly useful forsurveys, and for lling out sections 2 and 3 of the Research Plan (starting at8:05 to about 20:00).Secondary Research-Using Documents and TextSecondary research could include analyzing an existing data set (e.g. trade datafrom Statistics Canada, weather data), or extracting information and data fromdocuments, websites, government reports, CSR reports, or even social media.This latter technique is often used in 402 for research. It’s very important toensure that if you are using secondary sources to extract information throughdocument review and analysis, that you have a systematic way of nding andanalyzing the documents, so that your work is replicable. There is more onreplicability in the Week 3 module on Research Protocol.The following resources will get you started thinking about this method.An Introduction to Document Analysis This website provides an overview ofhow to do document review and analysis, as well as the pros and cons of each.Here is another simple overview of how to conduct document review andanalysis.A modied systematic review approach can also be a good way to get data andinformation for your research. You can try to nd examples of systematicreviews for the topic you are working on to get an idea of how they are done,and how the data is presented. Here are a few examples to get you started.Sawyerr, E., & Harrison, C. (2019). Developing resilient supply chains: Lessons from high-reliabilityorganisations. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 25(1), 77?100.
2023/1/20 14:11Page Template, R., Kamble, S. S., Gunasekaran, A., Kumar, V., & Kumar, A. (2020). A systematic literaturereview on machine learning applications for sustainable agriculture supply chain performance.Computers & Operations Research, 119, 104926., V. L., & Sanjuán, N. (2019). Opening up the black box: A systematic literature review of life cycleassessment in alternative food processing technologies. Journal of Food Engineering, 250, 33?45., E. Y. N., Thomson, M., & Gardiner, H. (2018). Measuring Nutrition and Food Literacy in Adults: ASystematic Review and Appraisal of Existing Measurement Tools. HLRP: Health Literacy Research andPractice, 2(3), e134?e160. you know what method you are using, write it down for each objective inthe Research Plan cell ‘Proposed method/approach to uncover information toanswer question.’ Also, nish section 2 of the template.Data Extraction or AnalysisYou will also have to describe your data analysis approach in section 3 of theResearch Plan template. There are two general approaches to this: Contentanalysis or Statistical analysis.Content AnalysisContent analysis is used for analyzing interviews and documents (which is thesame as document analysis described above). There is a closely relatedapproach called Thematic analysis. The difference between these twoapproaches is described in this document and in this article.Regardless of whether you are analyzing the content of interviews ordocuments, it requires a systematic and replicable method for reviewing thetext and extracting information. This process is known as coding, and you canlearn more about it through the following links.CodingSimple Steps in Thematic Analysis
2023/1/20 14:11Page Template coding and thematic analysis in Microsoft WordThis is a very comprehensive video discussing how to codeQualitative Analysis: Coding and Categorizing DataStatistical AnalysisThere are many ways to conduct statistical analysis on quantitative data ( statistics, weather data, survey data). It’s important to understand whatinformation you need so you can choose the correct test. Recall that there arebasically two types of statistics and it’s important to understand which onesmake sense for you to use.Descriptive vs. Inferential statistics?(7:19)Think about what you are trying to understand with your analysis. Whichstatistical approach will you need: Descriptive, inferential, or both? Are youjust trying to describe your data, or are you testing relationships?The following chart shows how to choose the type of statistical test dependingon the type and number of variables you can nalize the Research Template by lling out section 3.
2023/1/20 14:10Page Template Research Plan-Research Questionand ObjectivesThe research plan provides a clear idea of what questions you will answer,what information/data you will need to answer the questions, how you willcollect data to answer the questions, and how you will analyze the data. Youshould have the?Research Plan Template handy and ready to ll out while youare working through the remaining two modules for this week.Once you have a solid research question/aim and the objectives, it might beuseful to run them by your TA advisor to make sure you are on the right path tochoosing research methods.Research Questions and Research ObjectivesFor the research plan, you will need a clear research question AND researchaim/problem statement, research objectives, and methods to address theobjectives. You will also need to know how you will analyze the data collectedwith each research method. The following video explains the process that youwill use to ll out the Research Plan.Aligning problem statements, purpose statements, research questions, andmethodology (~30:00)Although this is aimed at graduate students, the concepts are the same. Thisvideo is as close as possible to what we expect from the research plan, but youshould still read the description below as it is more specic to the ResearchPlan assignment, and has several examples for you to model for your ownresearch questions/aims and objectives. You can also see an example of theresearch plan here.Research QuestionsLet’s start with the Research Question (a.k.a. Research Aim or ResearchProblem Statement)
2023/1/20 14:10Page Template research question or aim are the same thing, said in different ways. Theresearch question is?. well, it?s a question.? A research aim or problemstatement states the research question as a statement.But what is a research question? The research question is what guides youroverall research. Good research questions are:Clear ? understandable to everyoneResearchable- data can be collected (within 4 to 6 weeks for 402B)Focused-not too broad or too narrowPractical- relate to some actual situationAppropriately complexThe following examples illustrate these principles:Clear or Unclear:?Why are social networking sites harmful?Clear:?How are online users experiencing or addressing privacy issues on suchsocial networking sites as MySpace and Facebook?Focused or Unfocused:?What is the effect on the environment from globalwarming?Focused:?How is glacial melting affecting penguins in Antarctica?Too simple or Appropriately complex:?How are doctors addressing diabetesin the U.S.?Appropriately Complex:??What are common traits of those suffering fromdiabetes in America, and how can these commonalities be used to aid themedical community in prevention of the disease?Source: a course-relevant example of these principlesBroad topic: Wind energyProblem: There is a need to transition to renewable energy but there is a lackof uptake and acceptability of wind turbines.Broad research question: What are the barriers to wind energy uptake?
2023/1/20 14:10Page Template good research topic is broad enough to allow you to nd plenty of materialbut narrow enough to t within the size and time constraints of your report. Asyou formulate your research question, if the topic is either too broad ornarrow, consider adding or eliminating the following elements to solve theproblem:Time period: century, decade, future, etc.Population type: age, gender, species, residential/commercial/industrial, etc.Geographic location: country, province, region, rural/urban, etc.Point of view: environmental, economic, social, political, biological, etc.A more focused research question would be:What are the socio-economic barriers to wind energy uptake in rural southwesternOntario?Research Aim or Research Problem statement:Once you have your research question, you can write an aim/ purposestatement, which is a declarative sentence that rewords the research questioninto a statement and summarizes the specic topic and goals of the study.The purpose of this study is to __________ (examine, analyze, identify, etc.) in order to____________ (state expected result) for ___________ (identify target audience/keystakeholders).Example:The purpose of this study is to identify the socio-economic barriers to windenergy uptake in rural southwestern Ontario, so as to make recommendationsto policy-makers to overcome these barriers and ultimately increase thedevelopment of wind energy.???????????????????????????????????? ??????????????The following link provides more examples for you to think about as you createyour own research question.
2023/1/20 14:10Page Template use this knowledge to write out your research question/aim in Section 1of the Research Plan template.Research ObjectivesResearch objectives are specic topics or issues that you plan to investigate inorder to address the main research question. Sometimes research objectivesare phrased as research sub-questions (smaller questions within the overallresearch question).Note: Don’t mix up “project objectives” with “research objectives”. Projectobjectives are day-to-day tasks for completing your work, as you would putinto a Gantt chart (e.g. prepare survey, write methods). Research objectivesrefer to specic knowledge that you are trying to build to address the researchquestion or problem. Also, don’t confuse your objectives and methods. If youstart talking about how you will achieve objectives, you are likely adding themethods.By accomplishing your objectives, you will be in the position to answer yourresearch question. Objectives are always presented in the introduction,directly following your research question/purpose.Why should Research Objectives be Developed? The formulation of objectiveswill help you to:Focus the study (narrowing it down to essentials)Avoid the collection of data which are not strictly necessary forunderstanding or solving the problem you have identiedOrganize the study in clearly dened parts or phasesFacilitate the development of your research methodologyOrient the collection, analysis, interpretation and utilization of dataHow to State your Research Objectives
2023/1/20 14:10Page Template sure that your objectives:Cover the different aspects of the problem and its contributing factors ina coherent way and in a logical sequenceAre clearly phrased in operational terms, specifying exactly what type ofinformation/knowledge you hope to gainAre realistic considering local conditionsUse action verbs that are specic enough to be evaluated (i.e. to identify,to develop, to determine, to compare, to verify, to calculate, to describe…).Avoid the use of vague non-action verbs (i.e. to appreciate, to understand,or to study).Remember that when your report is evaluated, the results you generate will beassessed relative to whether they helped address/meet the objectives. If theobjectives have not been spelled out clearly, then it’s hard to know how toframe the results and discussion sections of your report, and challenging for usto evaluate how well you did the research.You can determine your objectives by subdividing the research question intospecic questions that you need to answer before addressing the overallresearch question/aim. So it’s important that you understand exactly how eachobjective relates to your overall research question or aim.Full example of research question/aim and objectivesIn the paper by Faiers and Neame (2006), there is a good example of the use ofa research aim and research sub-questions (i.e. objectives).Faiers, A., & Neame, C. (2006). Consumer attitudes towards domestic solarpower systems. Energy Policy, 34(14), 1797?1806. aim: As stated by the authors: ?This research was commissioned toexamine consumer attitudes towards domestic solar energy systems in order toidentify the barriers to the adoption of solar systems and inform future marketingactivity.? (p. 1797)
2023/1/20 14:10Page Template could be asked as a Research Question:What are consumer attitudes towards domestic solar energy systems?OR? more specicallyWhat are UK consumer attitudes towards domestic solar energy systems?The signicance and importance of this question is that it will be used toidentify barriers so that marketing can address the barriers. It might also helpgovernment decision-makers create appropriate incentives and programs toincrease uptake of solar energy systems.According to the authors, the ?sub-questions? are as follow:Do the pragmatic ?early majority? have a sufciently positive attitude towardsthe characteristics of ST and PV systems, which relate to ?relative advantage,compatibility, complexity, and observability? that indicates that adoption willfollow in the near future?Is there a signicant difference in attitude towards the characteristics of solarsystems between the innovative categories (referred to as the ?early adopters?)and the later, more pragmatic householders (referred to as the ?early majority?)or within the socio-economic or demographic sub-groups of the ?early majoritythat would inuence marketing activity?Is it possible to identify characteristics of solar power that may be creating theadoption ?chasm? as dened by Moore (1999)?These can be restated as several “research objectives?:1. To identify attitudes of early majority adopters of ST and PV systems withrespect to the technologies? characteristics in terms of relativeadvantage, compatibility, complexity and observability2. To determine whether there is a difference in attitudes towards thetechnology between early adopters and the early majority3. To identify socio-economic or demographic groups associated with theearly majority
2023/1/20 14:10Page Template To determine characteristics of solar power that create the adoptionchasmNOTE: This journal article takes an unusual approach in that it mixes aresearch aim statement with questions. Most of the time researchers wouldask a main research question, and then break it down into smaller questions,OR have a research aim/problem statement and objectives.Once you have a solid research question/aim and the objectives, it might beuseful to run them by your advisor to make sure you are on the right path tochoosing research methods.Write down your objectives in Section 2 of the Research Plan template.Resources for Research Questions and ObjectivesThis is a good resource that provides an overview of the researchquestion/aim/objectives.The only aspect that I disagree with is that making recommendations shouldNOT be an objective. This is because you can only make recommendationsonce you have pulled together information to address the research aim. Whenyou state your research aim in the required format (i.e.The purpose of this study is to__________ (examine, analyze, identify, etc.) in order to ____________ (state expected result) for ___________ (identify targetaudience/key stakeholders).), it implies that you will be making recommendationstowards something for a specic audience.Research Design and MethodsNow that you have your research question and objectives nalized, you canmove to Section 2 of the Research Plan template, where you will determinewhat research design and methods you will use to achieve the objectives andaddress your research aim.Go to Research Design and Methods module to nish the Research Plan. Plagiarism Free Papers

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